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  1. These techniques cover most of what data scientists and related practitioners are using in their daily activities, whether they use solutions offered by a vendor, or whether they design proprietary tools The 45 data science techniques Linear Regression Logistic Regression Jackknife Regression * Density Estimation Confidence Interval Test of Hypotheses Pattern Recognition Clustering - (aka Unsupervised Learning) Supervised Learning Time Series Decision Trees Random Numbers Monte-Carlo Simulation Bayesian Statistics Naive Bayes Principal Component Analysis - (PCA) Ensembles Neural Networks Support Vector Machine - (SVM) Nearest Neighbors - (k-NN) Feature Selection - (aka Variable Reduction) Indexation / Cataloguing * (Geo-) Spatial Modeling Recommendation Engine * Search Engine * Attribution Modeling * Collaborative Filtering * Rule System Linkage Analysis Association Rules Scoring Engine Segmentation Predictive Modeling Graphs Deep Learning Game Theory Imputation Survival Analysis Arbitrage Lift Modeling Yield Optimization Cross-Validation Model Fitting Relevancy Algorithm * Experimental Design
  2. Microsoft Excel is an amazing piece of software, and even regular users might not be getting as much out of it as they can. Improve your Excel efficiency and proficiency with these basic shortcuts and functions that absolutely everyone needs to know. 1. Jump from worksheet to worksheet with Ctrl + PgDn and Ctrl + PgUp 2. Jump to the end of a data range or the next data range with Ctrl + Arrow Of course you can move from cell to cell with arrow keys. But if you want to get around faster, hold down the Ctrl key and hit the arrow keys to get farther: 3. Add the Shift key to select data Ctrl + Shift +Arrow will extend the current selection to the last nonblank cell in that direction: 4. Double click to copy down To copy a formula or value down the length of your data set, you don't need to hold and drag the mouse all the way down. Just double click the tiny box at the bottom right-hand corner of the cell: 5. Use shortcuts to quickly format values For a number with two decimal points, use Ctrl + Shift + !. For dollars use Ctrl + Shift + $. For percentages it's Ctrl + Shift + %. The last two should be pretty easy to remember: 6. Lock cells with F4 When copying formulas in Excel, sometimes you want your input cells to move with your formulas BUT SOMETIMES YOU DON'T. When you want to lock one of your inputs you need to put dollar signs before the column letter and row number. Typing in the dollar signs is insane and a huge waste of time. Instead, after you select your cell, hit F4 to insert the dollar signs and lock the cell. If you continue to hit the F4 key, it will cycle through different options: lock cell, lock row number, lock column letter, no lock. 7. Summarize data with CountIF and SumIF CountIF will count the number of times a value appears in a selected range. The first input is the range of values you want to count in. The second input is the criteria, or particular value, you are looking for. Below we are counting the number of stories in column B written by the selected author: COUNTIF(range,criteria) SumIF will add up values in a range when the value in a corresponding range matches your criteria. Here we want to count the total number of views for each author. Our sum range is different from the range with the authors' names, but the two ranges are the same size. We are adding up the number of views in column E when the author name in column B matches the selected name.  SUMIF(range,criteria,sum range) 8. Pull out the exact data you want with VLOOKUP VLOOKUP looks for a value in the leftmost column of a data range and will return any value to the right of it. Here we have a list of law schools with school rankings in the first column. We want to use VLOOKUP to create a list of the top 5 ranked schools. VLOOKUP(lookup value,data range,column number,type) The first input is the lookup value. Here we use the ranking we want to find. The second input is the data range that contains the values we are looking up in the leftmost column and the information we're trying to get in the columns to the right. The third input is the column number of the value you want to return. We want the school name, and this is in the second column of our data range. The last input tells Excel if you want an exact match or an approximate match. For an exact match write FALSE or 0. 9. Use & to combine text strings Here we have a column of first names and last names. We can create a column with full names by using &. In Excel, & joins together two or more pieces of text. Don't forget to put a space between the names. Your formula will look like this =[First Name]&" "&[Last Name]. You can mix cell references with actual text as long as the text you want to include is surrounded by quotes: 10. Clean up text with LEFT, RIGHT and LEN These text formulas are great for cleaning up data. Here we have state abbreviations combined with state names with a dash in between. We can use the LEFT function to return the state abbreviation. LEFT grabs a specified number of characters from the start of a text string. The first input is the text string. The second input is the number of characters you want. In our case, we want the first two characters: LEFT(text string, number of characters) If you want to pull the names of the states out of this text string you have to use the RIGHT function. RIGHT grabs a number of characters from the right end of a text string. But how many characters on the right do you want? All but three, since the state names all come after the state's two-letter abbreviation and a dash. This is where LEN comes in handy. LEN will count the number of characters or length of the text string. LEN(text string) Now you can use a combination of RIGHT and LEN to pull out the state names. Since we want all but the first three characters, we take the length of our string, subtract 3, and pull that many characters from the right end of the string: RIGHT(text string,number of characters) 11. Generate random values with RAND You can use RAND() function to generate a random value between 0 and 1. D0 not include any inputs, just leave the parentheses empty. New random values will be generated every time the workbook recalculates. You can force it to recalculate by hitting F9. But be careful. It also recalculates when you make other changes to the workbook: RAND()
  3. Excel VLookUp made easy

    Hi Friends, This is my first video tutorial for VLookUp. Hope you all will like it Download the exercise file Vlookup example.xlsx
  4. In the overall knowledge discovery process, before data mining itself, data preprocessing plays a crucial role. One of the first steps concerns the normalization of the data. This step is very important when dealing with parameters of different units and scales. For example, some data mining techniques use the Euclidean distance. Therefore, all parameters should have the same scale for a fair comparison between them. Two methods are usually well known for rescaling data. Normalization, which scales all numeric variables in the range [0,1]. One possible formula is given below: On the other hand, you can use standardization on your data set. It will then transform it to have zero mean and unit variance, for example using the equation below: Both of these techniques have their drawbacks. If you have outliers in your data set, normalizing your data will certainly scale the “normal” data to a very small interval. And generally, most of data sets have outliers. When using standardization, your new data aren’t bounded (unlike normalization). So my question is what do you usually use when mining your data and why?
  5. There are tons of shortcuts for Excel out there—here’s a list of 200 for Excel 2013 alone. But trying to learn such a large number can be overwhelming, confusing, and ultimately inefficient. Instead, we’ve put together a list of 15 shortcuts that will be immediately useful for most users. This keyboard shortcut lists includes quick ways to format cells, navigate the program, and carry out a few operations. The list is based on Excel 2016, but most will also work on Excel 2013. When that’s not the case we’ve noted it. Keyboard access to the ribbon: Similar to the Vim-inspired add-ons for Chrome andFirefox, Excel 2013 and 2016 have a feature called Key Tips. When Key Tips appears by pressing Alt the Ribbon menu is overlaid with letters. Pressing a letter launches the corresponding menu item. Ctrl + PgDn: Switch between worksheet tabs, moving left to right. Ctrl + PgUp: Switch between worksheet tabs, moving right to left. F12: Display the “Save As” dialog. Ctrl + Shift + $: (Excel 2016) Current cell formatted as currency, with two decimal places and negative numbers in parentheses. Ctrl + Shift + %: (Excel 2016) Current cell formatted as percentage with no decimal places. Ctrl + Shift + #: (Excel 2016) Current cell formatted as date with day, month, year. Ctrl + Shift + “:”: Insert current time. Ctrl + Shift + “;”: Insert current date. F4: Repeats the last command or action, if possible. Shift + Arrow key: Extends your current cell selection by one addition cell in the direction specified. Ctrl + F1: Display or hide the Ribbon. Alt + Shift + F1: Insert a new worksheet tab. Ctrl + F4: Close the current workbook. Ctrl + D: Launches the Fill Down command for the selected cells below. Fill Down copies contents and format of the topmost cell in the column.
  6. Power users love to talk about how powerful and awesome Excel is, what with its Pivot Tables, nested formulas, and Boolean logic. But many of us barely know how to find the Autosum feature, let alone use Excel’s functions to create powerful formulas. If that’s you, here are 15 handy Excel functions that will get you well on your way to spreadsheet mastery. =SUM() The first function anyone should know tells Excel to carry out basic arithmetic. Let’s say you wanted the numbers in cell A2 and cell B2 to be added together in cell B3. All you’d do is enter =SUM into B3, click the =SUM entry in the pop-up that appears, Control + Click in cell A2 and B2 to highlight both, then hit Enter. In an instant you’d see sum of the two cells appear. You can use this function, and most of the functions listed here, to encompass as many cells as you require—just select all the ones you need included. =AVERAGE Average does exactly what it says and works similarly to SUM. If you have a worksheet containing your monthly earnings over the past year in columns A2 through A13, type =AVERAGE(A2:A13) into A14 to get the average. Again, you can also use your mouse cursor to click-and-drag highlight a range of cells, or use Control + Click to handpick individual cells. =MIN() If you need to find the smallest number in a range of cells, MIN can help you do that. Using =MIN(B3:B39) will give you the smallest number contained in those cells. =MAX() Max is the counterpart to MIN and does the opposite showing you the largest number contained in a range of cells. =TRIM() If you copy text from another program into Excel you can often end up with excess whitespace that turns your spreadsheet into a visual horror. TRIM can help you clean it up. TRIM can only deal with text from a single cell. So start by cleaning up the text in cell B1 by typing =TRIM(B1) into cell C1, for example, and then repeat the function for any other cells you need tidied up. If you’re looking to clean up line breaks, try CLEAN instead of TRIM. =COUNT() If you need to know how many cells in a given range contain numbers, don’t bother counting by hand—just use the COUNT function. If you have a mix of numbers and text in cells A1-A20, for example, type into cell A21 =COUNT(A1:20) and you’ll have the answer in no time. =COUNTA() Similar to the above example, you can use =COUNTA() to count the number of cells in a given range that contain characters such as numbers, text, or symbols. =LEN() If you want to count the number of characters in a single cell, including white spaces, check out LEN. Want to know how many characters are in cell A1? Just type =LEN(A1) into a different cell and you’ll find out. =CONCATENATE() This takes data from two cells and turns it into one. Check out our previous look at Excel functions to see how this can be useful. =DAYS() Want to know the number of days between two dates in a spreadsheet? If you had for example, September 5, 2015 in cell A4 and December 27, 2015 in A5 just use =DAYS(A5, A4) to get the answer. (Reversing the order of cells would give you a positive number). =NETWORKDAYS() Knowing the number of days is great, but if you need to know how many work days that range encompasses, turn to NETWORKDAYS (that’s ‘net work days’) instead. This function uses the same format as DAYS, but you need to use an ascending cell order to get a non-negative number. So =NETWORKDAYS(A4, A5) will give you 80 and not -80. =SQRT() Need to know the square root of 1764? Type =SQRT(1764) into a cell, hit Enter, and you’ll find the answer to life, the universe, and everything—including the example formula. =NOW() Want to see the current date and time whenever you open a particular worksheet? Type =NOW() into the cell where you want the date and you’re done. If you want to see a future date from right now, you can use something like =NOW()+32. The now function does not take any arguments so don’t put anything in between the brackets. =ROUND() As its name suggests, this function lets you round off numbers. ROUND requires two arguments: a number or cell, and the number of digits to round to. If you have the number 231.852645 in A1, for example, =ROUND(A1, 0) gives you 232, =ROUND(A1, 1) gives you 232.9, and =ROUND(A1, -1) returns 230. =ROUNDUP(), =ROUNDDOWN() If you want more direct control over rounding up or down there are functions for that too. ROUNDUP and ROUNDDOWN use exactly the same argument format as ROUND.
  7. Why Python for Data Analysis ?

    For data analysis and interactive, exploratory computing and data visualization, Python will inevitably draw comparisons with the many other domain-specific open source and commercial programming languages and tools in wide use, such as R, MATLAB, SAS, Stata, and others. In recent years, Python’s improved library support (primarily pandas) has made it a strong alternative for data manipulation tasks. Combined with Python’s strength in general purpose programming, it is an excellent choice as a single language for building data-centric applications Solving the “Two-Language” Problem In many organizations, it is common to research, prototype, and test new ideas using a more domain-specific computing language like MATLAB or R then later port those ideas to be part of a larger production system written in, say, Java, C#, or C++. What people are increasingly finding is that Python is a suitable language not only for doing research and prototyping but also building the production systems, too. I believe that more and more companies will go down this path as there are often significant organizational benefits to having both scientists and technologists using the same set of programmatic tools. Essential Python Libraries For those who are less familiar with the scientific Python ecosystem and the libraries used in data analysis. I present the following overview of some libraries 1. NumPy NumPy, short for Numerical Python, is the foundational package for scientific computing in Python. It provides, among other things A fast and efficient multidimensional array object ndarray Functions for performing element-wise computations with arrays or mathematical operations between arrays Tools for reading and writing array-based data sets to disk Linear algebra operations, Fourier transform, and random number generation Tools for integrating connecting C, C++, and Fortran code to Python Beyond the fast array-processing capabilities that NumPy adds to Python, one of its primary purposes with regards to data analysis is as the primary container for data to be passed between algorithms. For numerical data, NumPy arrays are a much more efficient way of storing and manipulating data than the other built-in Python data structures. Also, libraries written in a lower-level language, such as C or Fortran, can operate on the data stored in a NumPy array without copying any data. 2. pandas pandas provides rich data structures and functions designed to make working with structured data fast, easy, and expressive. It is, as you will see, one of the critical ingredients enabling Python to be a powerful and productive data analysis environment. The primary object in pandas that will be used is the DataFrame, a two dimensional tabular, column-oriented data structure with both row and column labels: pandas combines the high performance array-computing features of NumPy with the flexible data manipulation capabilities of spreadsheets and relational databases (such as SQL). It provides sophisticated indexing functionality to make it easy to reshape, slice and dice, perform aggregations, and select subsets of data. For financial users, pandas features rich, high-performance time series functionality and tools well-suited for working with financial data. In fact, I initially designed pandas as an ideal tool for financial data analysis applications. For users of the R language for statistical computing, the DataFrame name will be familiar, as the object was named after the similar R data.frame object. They are not the same, however; the functionality provided by data.frame in R is essentially a strict subset of that provided by the pandas DataFrame. While this is a book about Python, I will occasionally draw comparisons with R as it is one of the most widely-used open source data analysis environments and will be familiar to many readers. The pandas name itself is derived from panel data, an econometrics term for multidimensional structured data sets, and Python data analysis itself. 3. matplotlib matplotlib is the most popular Python library for producing plots and other 2D data visualizations. It was originally created by John D. Hunter (JDH) and is now maintained by a large team of developers. It is well-suited for creating plots suitable for publication. It integrates well with IPython (see below), thus providing a comfortable interactive environment for plotting and exploring data. The plots are also interactive; you can zoom in on a section of the plot and pan around the plot using the toolbar in the plot window. 4. IPython IPython is the component in the standard scientific Python toolset that ties everything together. It provides a robust and productive environment for interactive and exploratory computing. It is an enhanced Python shell designed to accelerate the writing, testing, and debugging of Python code. It is particularly useful for interactively working with data and visualizing data with matplotlib. IPython is usually involved with the majority of my Python work, including running, debugging, and testing code. Aside from the standard terminal-based IPython shell, the project also provides A Mathematica-like HTML notebook for connecting to IPython through a web browser (more on this later). • A Qt framework-based GUI console with inline plotting, multiline editing, and syntax highlighting • An infrastructure for interactive parallel and distributed computing 5. SciPy SciPy is a collection of packages addressing a number of different standard problem domains in scientific computing. Here is a sampling of the packages included: scipy.integrate: numerical integration routines and differential equation solvers scipy.linalg: linear algebra routines and matrix decompositions extending beyond those provided in numpy.linalg. scipy.optimize: function optimizers (minimizers) and root finding algorithms scipy.signal: signal processing tools scipy.sparse: sparse matrices and sparse linear system solvers scipy.special: wrapper around SPECFUN, a Fortran library implementing many common mathematical functions, such as the gamma function scipy.stats: standard continuous and discrete probability distributions (density functions, samplers, continuous distribution functions), various statistical tests, and more descriptive statistics scipy.weave: tool for using inline C++ code to accelerate array computations Together NumPy and SciPy form a reasonably complete computational replacement for much of MATLAB along with some of its add-on toolboxes.
  8. How to use pivot tables in Excel and that has made all the difference. It enabled me to take a series of data and analyze it in a variety of different ways rather than waiting for a programmer to create a static report. As I was establishing KPIs for my company, this helped me make sense of the data. This really saved incredible amounts of time and I started enjoyed playing with data. Sharing with you the ten basic formulas and functions that one can’t live without when it comes to building reports to track the KPIs that are essential to managing their programs. This isn’t meant to be a tutorial but more of a “hey, did you know that you can do that in Excel or Google Sheets?” Here are ten that you should add to your repertoire if you haven’t already. 1. Filter Filtering allows you to quickly sort any column and include/exclude rows containing certain data. For example, if you have a list of all of your phone calls for the month, you can use filtering to only display the calls handled by certain agents. 2. Conditional Formatting Conditional Formatting is a great way to add visuals to your spreadsheets based on the data. For example, if you want to rank a set of data, you can have all rows within a certain parameter be one color and anything outside of that parameter another color. It’s great for seeing where you’re hitting your goals and where you might need to improve. 3 Format Painter The format painter is a simple tool that allows you to copy just the formatting from a certain spreadsheet and quickly apply it to a new set of cells. 4. Date The DATE function is incredibly useful in Excel. It’s a common thing to have a bunch of rows with dates but it can be difficult to group them by month. You can quickly create a column for month next to your date column by using this formula: =DATE(YEAR(A2),MONTH(A2),1) A2 represents the cell that has the date in it. If the date in that cell looks like 2016-04-03 the month cell will look like 2016-04-01. Regardless of the date, the month will display the first day of each month and now you can quickly filter or group in your pivot table by month. Bonus: Once you do this in your first cell, double click in the bottom right hand corner of that cell and it will copy the formula all the way to the bottom of your spreadsheet. You don’t have to write that formula 25,000 times. Win. 5. Dollar sign The dollar sign is an important little symbol to remember in your formulas. In the previous point, Excel has the ability to customize the formula in the cell relative to the row it’s in. Perhaps you’re doing a formula where you want to multiply the cells in a particular column by a value in another single cell. The dollar sign turns off that relativity and makes sure that the cell number doesn’t change in your formula. So your formula might look something like : =A2*$D$16 If you copy that formula to the next cell in the column, the formula will look like: =B2*$D$16 6. Lookup & HLookup Learn this formula and you will really feel like an Excel wizard. This allows you to grab data from another sheet using a common identifier. For example, you may have one sheet that has all of your data for your support tickets for the month including the name of the agent who handled the ticket. You’d really like to group ticket results by the team the agents work on. In another sheet, you can create a simple, two-column sheet that has the name of the agent and the team they are on. Once you have that sheet created, go back to your main sheet and create a “team” column. In this case you will use VLOOKUP because it’s vertical. HLOOKUP is if your data is laid out horizontally. The VLOOKUP will look up the name of the agent and match it with the name on the other sheet and fill in the corresponding team name. A formula might look like this: =VLOOKUP(A2,’OtherSheet’!$A$1:$B$25,2,FALSE) Note that the aforementioned dollar signs are often really useful in this formula. 7. Data Validation Data Validation allows you to create cool things like drop down lists in a cell. Consider a time where you had to enter “yes” or “no” in a certain column or possibly a wider range of options. A drop down list allows you to quickly select from the options you want in a couple clicks rather than several key strokes and it ensures consistent formatting. 8. Sum, Average, Count These simple functions are great to remember so you don’t have to hunt around for the function button. Add an “=” before each and you can count, add, or average any range of cells that you select. These are essential building blocks to know for the next tip. 9. IF and IFS Add IF or IFS after Sum, Average, and Count to add some criteria to those formulas. Adding the “S” allows you to attach multiple criteria to the formula. Let’s say I have a table full of quality scores and I want to count how many perfect 100% scores my team earned. My formula would look something like this: =COUNTIF(A1:A500,“100”) 10. IF Statements IF statements allow you to apply logic to a certain cell. For example, if you have a list of all of your phone calls and a column that displays how many seconds each caller waited before their call was answered, you can determine how many calls were answered in less than 60 seconds. Your formula would look something like this: =IF(A2<=60,“Yes”,“No”) So if the caller waited 60 seconds or less, the value printed in the cell will be “Yes.” If it was more than 60 seconds, the value would be “No.” That’s ten rather amazing tools to supercharge the way you use Microsoft Excel or Google Sheets for your reporting and we barely scratched the surface of some of the things you can do. A rule of thumb I’ve learned with these programs is that if there’s something you’re doing manually that’s time consuming, there’s probably a formula or function that will help you do it faster What are your go to Excel tips and tricks? Leave us a comment and let us know.
  9. Which chart do you often use in your presentation or analysis? Share your experience....For help.. please visit the forums
  10. Version

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    Key Areas Employee Profiling and Segmentation Employee Attrition and Loyalty Analysis Forecasting of HR Capacity and Recruitment Needs Appropriate Recruitment Profile Selection Employee Sentiment Analysis Employee Fraud Risk Management
  11. Free Public version of Tableau

    Download the free Public version https://public.tableau.com/s/
  12. Improving your Excel skills is a great place to begin to claw back a few minutes on every project, because Excel is a tool used by most of us on a regular basis. It has so many incredible capabilities that are not immediately apparent. Just finding one trick can save you minutes every day. Excel Tip No. 1: Automatically SUM() with ALT + = Quickly add an entire column or row by clicking in the first empty cell in the column. Then enter ALT + ‘=’ (equals key) to add up the numbers in every cell above. Excel Tip No. 2: Logic for Number Formatting Keyboard Shortcuts At times keyboard shortcuts seem random, but there is logic behind them. Let’s break an example down. To format a number as a currency the shortcut is CRTL + SHIFT + 4. Both the SHIFT and 4 keys seem random, but they’re intentionally used because SHIFT + 4 is the dollar sign ($). Therefore if we want to format as a currency, it’s simply: CTRL + ‘$’ (where the dollar sign is SHIFT + 4). The same is true for formatting a number as a percent. Excel Tip No. 3: Display Formulas with CTRL + ` When you’re troubleshooting misbehaving numbers first look at the formulas. Display the formula used in a cell by hitting just two keys: Ctrl + ` (known as the acute accent key) – this key is furthest to the left on the row with the number keys. When shifted it is the tilde (~). Excel Tip No. 4: Jump to the Start or End of a Column Keyboard Shortcut You are thousands of rows deep into your data set and need to get to the first or last cell. Scrolling is OK but the quickest way is to use the keyboard shortcut CTRL + ↑ to jump to the top cell, or CTRL + ↓ to drop to the last cell before an empty cell. When you combine this shortcut with the SHIFT key, you’ll select a continuous block of cells from your original starting point. Excel Tip No. 5: Repeat a Formula to Multiple Cells Never type out the same formula over and over in new cells again. This trick populates all of the cells in a column with the same formula, but adjusts to use the data specific to each row. Create the formula you need in the first cell. Then move your cursor to the lower right corner of that cell and, when it turns into a plus sign, double click to copy that formula into the rest of the cells in that column. Each cell in the column will show the results of the formula using the data in that row. Excel Tip No. 6: Add or Delete Columns Keyboard Shortcut Managing columns and rows in your spreadsheet is an all-day task. Whether adding or deleting, you can save a little time when you use this keyboard shortcut. CTRL + ‘-‘ (minus key) will delete the column your cursor is in and CTRL + SHIFT + ‘=’ (equal key) will add a new column. From an earlier tip, think about CTRL + ‘+’ (plus sign). Excel Tip No. 7: Adjust Width of One or Multiple Columns It’s easy to adjust a column to the width of its content and get rid of those useless ##### entries. Click on the column’s header, move your cursor to the right side of the header and double click when it turns into a plus sign. Excel Tip No. 8: Copy a Pattern of Numbers or Even Dates Another amazing feature built into Excel is its ability to recognize a pattern in your data, and allow you to automatically copy it to other cells. Simply enter information in two rows which establish the pattern, highlight those rows and drag down for as many cells as you want to populate. This works with numbers, days of the week or months! Excel Tip No. 9: Tab Between Worksheets Jumping from worksheet to worksheet doesn’t mean you have to move your hand off the keyboard with this cool shortcut. To change to the next worksheet to the right enter CTRL + PGDN. And conversely change to the worksheet to the left by entering CTRL + PGUP. Excel Tip No. 10: Double Click Format Painter Format Painter is a great tool which lets you duplicate a format in other cells with no more effort than a mouse click. Many Excel users (Outlook, Word and PowerPoint too) use this handy feature, but did you know you can double-click Format Painter to copy the format into multiple cells? It’s quite a time-saver. More Excel Tricks or Help requiered Please ask your questions in http://bi-analytics.org/forum/1-excel-fundamentals/ What tricks do you employ to make the most of your time with Excel? Feel free to share in the comments so we can all benefit!
  13. Both the Bar and the Column charts display data using rectangular bars where the length of the bar is proportional to the data value. Both are used to compare two or more values. However, their difference lies in their orientation. A Bar chart is oriented horizontally whereas the Column chart is oriented vertically. Bar Chart Column chart Which one to choose from and why ?
  14. What is variant data type? What is the difference between a variant array and an array of variants ?
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